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Tag Archives: P-38 Lightning

THE CONNIE

CON#1

 

In 1939 Trans World Airlines was becoming a major competitor with Pan American Airlines for the emerging overseas route service.  While TWA contracted with Lockheed to develop an aircraft to rival the performance and capacity of the Boeing Stratoliner, a major stockholder of TWA requested Lockheed to build an even greater plane-one which would ultimately define both an airline and an era of aviation.

Though Lockheed had been working on the L-044 Excalibur since 1937, Howard Hughes, the majority stockholder of Trans World, requested Lockheed develop an even more capable aircraft with a forty passenger capacity and a range of 3,500 miles.  The new design, the L-049 Constellation, was a radical departure from previous airliners.  The tripletail configuration kept the aircraft’s height low enough to fit in existing hangars.  The wing layout was similar to another Lockheed plane, the P-38 Lightning.  The L-049 featured such innovations as hydraulically boosted controls and a de-icing system used on wing and tail surfaces and mounted tricycle landing gear.  The Constellation had an impressive performance for its day, being able to attain a maximum speed of 375 mph. with a cruising speed of 340 mph. – faster than many fighters of the era, with a service ceiling of 24,000 ft.

While intended for use as an airliner, the L-049s which entered service for TWA in January 1943 were quickly converted to military transports with the USAAF ordering 202 aircraft.  The military designation, C-69, was used primarily as a long-range troop transport.  Though the C-69 was successful in its role, only 22 aircraft were produced during the war.  A number remained in service with the USAF into the 1960s, ferrying relocating military personnel.  Lockheed even had plans to develop the L-049 as a long-range bomber (XB-30), but the design was never pursued.

 

CON#2

 

Following World War II the Constellation began its heyday.  USAAF C-69 transports were completed as civil airliners with TWA accepting its first aircraft in October 1945, initiating its first transatlantic flight from Washington DC to Paris in December of that year.  During the late 1940s, the Constellation was upgraded several times to increase fuel capacity and speed.  Finally, in early 1951 the Super Constellation was introduced.  The Super Connie was extended 18.4 ft. over the L-1049 (L-049).  to expand passenger capacity to ninety- two seats with a cruising speed of 305 mph. and a range of 5,150 miles.  With auxiliary wing-tip fuel tanks, the Super Constellation could fly non-stop between New York and Los Angeles.  Some pilots used to shorter runs began to complain about long days.  An early problem with the 1049 Model was excessive exhaust gas flaming-sometimes past the trailing wing edge.  Once the exhaust problem was corrected, the Super Connie became a highly successful airliner.

In 1955 the Constellation underwent additional updates.  Though still called the Super Constellation, the Model 1649 aircraft was first designated the Super Star Constellation, finally evolving into the Starliner name by Lockheed.  The Starliner was the most extensive modification of any Constellation models.  The Starliner had features such as fully reclining seats for long flights, a more precise cabin temperature control, and ventilation, as well as state of the art noise insulation.  The Starliner had outside improvements which included a longer and narrower wing, nearly doubling the capacity of the original Connie with twice the range at maximum payload-enabling it to reach any major European air hub non-stop from US airports.  The Model 1649 also has the distinction of being the fastest piston-engined airliner flown at ranges of over 4,000 miles.

The Constellation served a number of military roles, in addition to a troop transport.  In 1948 the USAF placed an order for ten Constellation transport aircraft (C-121).  Several of these were deployed in support of the Berlin Airlift later that year.  Six of the planes were later reconfigured to VIP transports (VC-121), one of which was used by Dwight Eisenhower as NATO Chief Of Staff.  Eisenhower was so impressed with the plane, he named it Columbine.  When he became President he was assigned another VC-121, which he named Columbine II.  In the early 1950s, the US Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps ordered C-121s mounted with radar domes on top to provide long-range radar for surface ships, as well as surveillance radar for command and control of aircraft.  In the early 1960s, EC-121s briefly performed an anti-submarine role for the US Navy.

By the end of the 1950s, the Constellation became an aviation icon.  It was in service with more than a dozen airlines, quickly becoming the flagship of Trans World Airlines.  The Connie was in service with both the US military and several other government agencies, with duties ranging from tracking smugglers to hurricanes.  Though expensive to build due to its tapered fuselage, the Constellation was a graceful aircraft.  While being rapidly phased out by the major airlines in 1961 in favor of newer jetliners such as the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, the Connie was still in use with a number of regional airlines with 856 examples built.  Howard Hughes gamble in 1939 had paid off in a big way.

 

LOCKHEED AND HUDSON

The recent discovery of an aluminum panel on Nikumaroro atoll in the South Pacific has renewed interest in the search for the Lockheed Electra flown by the aviatrix Amelia Earhart. During this blog, we will follow the development of the Electra, as well as its civil and military roles.

ELECTRA#1

In spite of the Great Depression, the early 1930s was a time of expanded air traffic, in both the passenger and cargo categories.  Lockheed developed the Electra to compete with the Boeing 247 and Douglas DC 2.  The Electra was the first all metal plane built by Lockheed and complied with a 1934 federal requirement that all aircraft carrying mail had to be powered by more than one engine, due to a series of crashes with single engine planes.  It was also Lockheed’s first major move toward becoming a key manufacturer of transport aircraft.  The Electra was a cantilever low-wing monoplane of all-metal construction, with retractable tailwheel landing gear and a tail unit incorporating twin fins and rudders.  The prototype was first flown in 1934, with the Model 10 entering service later that year.  By the late 1930s the Electra was flown by eight major airlines, resulting in a production run of 148 aircraft.

However, it began to decline in both the cargo and passenger roles by the beginning of World War II, due to the introduction of larger aircraft types such as the Boeing Stratoliner.  The Electra was relatively easy to fly and could be modified for a variety of tasks.  A modified Electra was used to conduct wing de-icing tests with a system that utilized hot gasses from the engine exhausts.  Sidney Cotton, an Australian executive who used an Electra Model 12 for business trips, modified the plane to carry cameras, taking clandestine photographs of German and Italian military installations over a three month period just before the beginning of World War II.  Perhaps the two most famous flights of the Electra were that of Amelia Earhart, in her attempted around the world flight in 1937 and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain’s 1938 meeting in Munich with Adolf Hitler.

While civil interest in the Electra began to decline, the military potential of the plane increased.  Lockheed, in an effort to promote foreign sales, sent cutaway drawings of the plane in 1937 to various publications, displaying the aircraft as both a civilian airliner and a converted military bomber.  The following year, the British purchased a modified version of the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra airliner to supplement its Avro Anson maritime patrol aircraft, the Lockheed planes designated as the Hudson Mk I.  The aircraft quickly entered production with 78 aircraft available to the RAF by the start of the war in September 1939.  The RAF received an additional 410 planes via the Lend Lease program.  The Hudson was originally armed with two fixed Browning machine guns in the nose along with two .30 cal. machine guns in a dorsal turret.  As the war progressed, the Hudson’s armament increased with the addition of two waist guns and a single ventral gun.

Operationally, the Hudson achieved a number of firsts.  It was the first aircraft deployed from the British Isles to shoot down an enemy aircraft in October 1939.  A Hudson was the first US plane to sink a German U boat (U 656) and the first Canadian aircraft to do the same (U 754), both in 1942.  In 1941, an attack by an RAF Hudson based in Iceland forced U 570 to surface, causing the submarine’s crew to display a white flag and surrender – the aircraft being the first to capture a warship.  In the Pacific, the Hudson was equally effective, with an RAAF Hudson being the first to make an attack on the Japanese Troopship Awazisan Maru  off the Malayian coast, an hour before the attack on Pearl Harbor.  Saburo Sakai and other Japanese aces have praised both the durability and maneuverability of the Hudson in protracted aerial combat.

While outclassed by larger bombers later in the war, the Hudson was available at a time when it was most needed.  Although difficult to take off and land, it was easy to fly.  It was a versatile aircraft, performing a variety of missions ranging from antisubmarine patrols to transporting agents behind enemy lines, as well as a trainer aircraft for bomber pilots.  The Hudson was noted by its pilots for exceptional agility for a twin-engine plane.  Perhaps the most enduring tribute to the Hudson was it spawned the development of two other successful Lockheed aircraft, the Ventura and the P-38 Lightning.

HUDSON#2